AskDefine | Define stibine

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

From stibium + -ine.

Pronunciation

/ˈstɪbaɪn/

Noun

  1. Stibnite.
  2. Antimony hydride, SbH3; a poisonous gas, sometimes used as a fumigant.

Extensive Definition

Stibine is the chemical compound with the formula SbH3. This colourless gas is the principal covalent hydride of antimony and a heavy analogue of ammonia. The molecule is pyramidal with H–Sb–H angles of 91.7° and Sb–H distances of 1.707 Å (170.7 pm). This gas has an offensive smell like hydrogen sulfide (rotten eggs).

Preparation and properties

SbH3 is generally prepared by the reaction of Sb3+ sources with H− equivalents:
2 Sb2O3 + 3 LiAlH4 → 4 SbH3 + 1.5 Li2O + 1.5 Al2O3
SbCl3 + 3/4 NaBH4 → SbH3 + 0.75 NaCl + 0.75 BCl3
Alternatively, sources of Sb3− react with protonic reagents (even water) to also produce this unstable gas:
Na3Sb + 3 H2O → SbH3 + 3 NaOH
The chemical properties of SbH3 resemble those for AsH3. Typical for a heavy hydride (e.g. AsH3, H2Te, SnH4), SbH3 is unstable with respect to its elements. The gas decomposes slowly at room temperature but rapidly at 200 °C:
2 SbH3 → 3 H2 + 2 Sb
The decomposition is autocatalytic and can be explosive.
SbH3 is readily oxidized by O2 or even air:
2 SbH3 + 3 O2 → Sb2O3 + 3 H2O
SbH3 exhibits no basicity, but it can be deprotonated:
SbH3 + NaNH2 → NaSbH2 + NH3

Uses

Stibine is used in the semiconductor industry to dope small quantities of antimony via the process of chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Reports claim the use of SbH3 as a fumigant but its instability and awkward preparation contrast with the more conventional fumigant PH3.

History

As stibine (SbH3) is very similar to arsine (AsH3), it is also detected by the Marsh test. This sensitive test detects arsine generated in the presence of arsenic. but it was not before 1901 when Alfred Stock determined most of the properties of stibine.

Safety

SbH3 is an unstable flammable gas. It is highly toxic, with an LC50 of 100 ppm in mice. Fortunately, SbH3 is so unstable that it is rarely encountered outside of laboratories.

Toxicology

For the toxicology of other antimony compounds, see Antimony trioxide.
The toxicity of stibine is distinct from that of other antimony compounds, but similar to that of arsine. Stibine binds to the haemoglobin of red blood cells, causing them to be destroyed by the body. Most cases of stibine poisoning have been accompanied by arsine poisoning, although animal studies indicate that their toxicities are equivalent. The first signs of exposure, which can take several hours to become apparent, are headaches, vertigo and nausea, followed by the syptoms of hemolytic anemia (high levels of unconjugated bilirubin), hemoglobinuria and nephropathy.

References

stibine in Czech: Stiban
stibine in German: Stiban
stibine in Dutch: Stibine
stibine in Japanese: スチビン
stibine in Romanian: Stibină
stibine in Russian: Стибин
stibine in Chinese: 锑化氢
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